What is Dumping Syndrome?
Dumping Syndrome is a collection of symptoms that occur after eating resulting from rapid delivery of stomach content into the small intestine. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Normally there is a muscle sphincter (the pylorus) at the lower end of stomach that regulates the slow delivery of broken down food into the intestine. Therefore, dumping syndrome is very common in operations that bypass or remove the pylorus such as stomach cancer surgery and gastric bypass (85% of patients). Dumping syndrome is also seen in some patients having other stomach operations such as sleeve gastrectomy.
Dumping Syndrome and Sleeve Gastrectomy
The resection of around 85% of stomach in sleeve gastrectomy results in major changes in the anatomy and function of the stomach. Even though the pylorus valve is maintained, the new stomach tube has a very limited capacity (around 150 mL) resulting in rapid emptying of the stomach content into the intestine.
After sleeve gastrectomy very few patients experience true dumping syndrome, however, studies that used a glucose provocation test showed that around 25% of patients develop symptoms of dumping syndrome with glucose provocation. In general these symptoms are milder than those experienced by patients with gastric bypass. The symptoms tend to improve after the first year.